QID is primarily focused on midstream, power and industrial infrastructure industries. On occasion, we will act upon resource investments such as: oil and gas, industrial minerals, metals and real property including timber. Keen Endeavors, LLC invests in generalist middle-market and venture capital situations. We are mostly focused on the lower and middle markets. However, we stay in dialogue with large institutional investors, and from time-to-time will make approaches on large internally-generated or advisor-managed opportunities (defined as equity of US$200 million or greater). Our ability to build and value assets, as well as to retain management team individuals with specific expertise, enables us to remain opportunistic across industry segments and through transaction structure.
Since 2011 when QID was formally organized, we and partners have invested more than $620 million in equity toward either self-managed platforms or through co-investment situations. Holding unrealized investments at their costs and recognizing a zero on one investment (yes, we make mistakes), we and partners have distributed and hold more than $960 million in equity value. While not a barometer for all our investments as several private initiatives are non-energy, the Dow Jones Commodity Index averaged 784 in 2011 and through April 2016 has averaged 452, a 42% decline.